The Cossacks lived in Kureni, at the head of each kuren stood chicken chieftain, was the main chieftain of Sich, chose him on a Cossack Rada. where the lower -scale Cossacks and foreman were present, the highest state body of the Cossacks was the hetman. If we talk about farms and winter huts. then the Cossacks lived like any rural people. They only did not pay taxes. The only salvation from the ruin of lands by Tatar raids, but the Cossacks themselves ravaged the Poles, the Poles of the Cossacks. So the Cossacks did not have a particular influence on the economy, except that they returned a lot of labor to their native land-slaves from Turkish captivity. They brought a lot of various goods, the utensils, which were seized on campaigns and then sold to merchants, so the treasury of the state was also enriched. They took off new lands, and attached them to the state of the Moscow.
To begin with, in the 17th century the Cossacks were not yet included in the Russian state – communication took place through the modern ‘Ministry of Foreign Affairs’. The Cossack people lived on their own, but was under the considerable influence of Moscow. Cossacks independently chose their chieftains, priests, judges, clerks, etc. officials, and managed according to Cossack traditions. The century began with the fact that Boris Godunov announced the Cossacks of the embargo and forbade the Cossacks to let the Cossacks on Rus’ and trade with them, trying to strangle and subjugate the Cossacks economically, t.To. Cossacks, leading a semi -nuclear lifestyle had a shortage of production and the availability of many goods and needed trade and exchange. This century was marked by numerous Cossack trips to Rus’ – Bolotnikov, ‘Time of Troubles’, Razin, a number of smaller ones… In order to change power in Moscow. Only one of them was successful – at Time of Troubles, the Cossacks drove the Poles and put on the throne of the Romanovs…But the choice turned out to be tragic – the Romanovs, in particular Peter 1 – subjected the Cossacks to the genocide at the beginning of the 18th century and by force of weapons included the Cossacks in the Russian Empire, abolishing and destroying all the contracts for the service and replacing them with the obligation to serve, and attaching the Cossacks to the land (Before Peter 1, the Cossacks did not cultivate the land).
Despite the fact that the Cossacks were free and did not pay to the treasury of the state of Russian counterparts, the economic benefits of the Cossacks were undoubted.
First of all, the Cossacks defended the southeastern borders of Russia, and this gave the tsar the opportunity not to keep the army on the borders, which of course was a great economy for the country. Less military expenses, more expenses for other areas of management and life.
Cossacks in many respects provided themselves, that is, they conducted a natural economy, mastered new territories, which also brought economic benefits to the country.
And of course we must not forget about the role of the Cossacks in the conquest of Siberia. This conquest began at the end of the 16th century with the campaign of Ermak, but in the 17th century it continued and also largely thanks to Cossack squads. This conquest brought Russia new lands, of course, the economic benefit, which only increased with each century.
The Cossacks brought unconditional economic benefit to the state, protecting the southern, southeastern and southwestern borders from raids, in fact, replacing the regular army. The Cossacks also actively developed agriculture in the regions of their residence, making a feasible contribution to the economy. It is worth noting that from foreign campaigns the Cossacks returned with impressive prey, which also enriched the country. Well, of course, the role of the Cossacks was extremely significant, if not decisive, in the development of Siberia with the Far East and the subsequent protection of the attached lands.
Let’s start with the state. Cossacks are an estate that allowed the Russian state to master the land from the Urals to the Far East and Berengov Strait and further Alaska and California. Moreover, it is precisely to master and bring ‘by the arm of the White Tsar’ without wars and battles for these lands, in fact peacefully. Cossacks are those who established and protected the borders of the Russian Empire from raids, allowing it to maintain much fewer troops on their borders than, for example, in the European part. Due to the fact that Siberia was populated by the Cossacks, which created the trash border lines from the raids of the nomads, it was possible to ensure the safety of deserted lands for the settlement of peasant, work and commercial people. And, subsequently, taking nomadic tribes, suffering from raids of stronger and more militant nomads, expanding and strengthening the territories of the Russian Federation.
If we talk about the management of the Cossack community, then this is the only thing that remains of the truly democratic management. As in any society, in the Cossack community there is an executive branch represented by the Stanichnaya Directorate and its head of the Stanichnaya Ataman. But… The highest authority in the Cossack community was always a Cossack circle, who was gathering not only annually, but also to solve any serious issues. And for this circle, neither the chieftain nor the priest were authorities and had in a circle like all one voice. Probably, the most concentrated expression of Cossack self -government is expressed by the covenants of Ignat Nekrasov, the associate of Bulavin, who was forced to emigrate to Turkey with his community, but even there the Cossacks were able to maintain their identity and even for a foreign land they forced the Turks to reckon with their rules of life. These are the ataman’s covenants, most of which (with the exception of Turkish theme) are characteristic of any Cossack community:
- Tsarism does not submit. Under the kings, do not return to Russia.
- Do not connect with the Turks, do not communicate with foreigners. Communication with the Turks only by need (trade, war, taxes). Quarrels with the Turks are prohibited.
- Higher power – Cossack circle. Participation from the age of 18.
- The solution of the circle is performed by the chieftain. He is strictly obeyed.
- Ataman is elected for a year. If it is guilty – shifts ahead of time.
- Circle solutions for all are required. The performance is monitored by every1.
- All earnings are handed over to the military treasury. From it, everyone gets 2/3 of the money earned. 1/3 goes to kosh.
- Kosh is divided into three parts: 1st part-army, weapons. 2nd part-School Church. 3rd-help widows, orphans, old people, etc. needy.
- Marriage can only be concluded between members of the community. For marriage with Gentiles – death.
- Husband does not offend his wife. With the permission of the circle, she can leave him, and the circle punishes her husband.
- Owe the good only with labor. A real Cossack loves his work.
- For robbery, robbery, murder – by decision of the circle – death.
- For robbery, robbery, murder in the war – by decision of the circle – death.
- Shinkov, Kabakov – do not keep in the village.
- Cossacks in the soldiers are no road.
- Keep a word. Cossacks and children should gut in the old way.
- Cossack Cossack does not hire. Does not receive money from the hands of his brother.
- Do not sing in the post of world songs. Only old ones can be possible.
- Without the permission of the circle, the chieftain of the Cossack from the village cannot leave.
- Only the army helps orphans and elderly, so as not to humiliate and not humiliate.
- Personal assistance to keep secret.
- There should be no beggars in the village.
- All Cossacks are kept truly – Orthodox old faith.
- For the murder of the Cossack Cossack Cossack, the killer alive is buried in the ground.
- Trade in the village do not.
- Who trades on the side – 1/20 profit in kosh.
- Young people revere the elders.
- Cossack must go to a circle after 18 years. If it does not walk, they take a fine twice, on the third – they are secluded. The fine is set by the chieftain and foreman.
- Chipel after a red hill for a year. Esaul to elect after 30 years. Colonel or camp ataman after 40 years. Army chieftain – only after 50 years.
- For the betrayal of her husband, 100 lashes beat him
- For the betrayal of his wife – to bury her around the neck in the ground.
- For theft beat to death.
- For the theft of a military good – they are striping and a hot boiler on the head
- If confused with the Turks, death.
- If a son or daughter raised a hand to parents – death. For the senior offense – lashes. The younger brother will not lift the older hand, the circle will punish with whips.
- For treason, the army, blasphemy – death.
- Do not shoot at the war at the war. Do not go against blood.
- Stand for small people.
- There is no extradition from Don.
- Who does not fulfill the covenants of Ignat, he will die.
- If the army is not in hats, then you can’t go on a hike.
- For violation by the ataman of the covenants of Ignat – to punish and remove from the atamanism. If, after punishment, the chieftain does not thank the circle “for science”, he should be carved again and declare a rebel.
- Atamanism can last only three terms – power spoils a person.
- Do not keep prisons.
- Do not put the deputy on the campaign, but those who do it for money are to execute death as a coward and traitor.
- Guilt for any crime sets a circle.
- A priest who does not fulfill the will of the circle – to expel, or even kill as a rebel or heretic.