Otto Bismarck- received a definition from historians, the Iron Chancellor, this man united the disparate Germany into a single strong state and blood. Bismarck left a statement about Russia: ‘Never fight with Russia, for your every trick, it will respond with unpredictable stupidity’. The end of the 19th century crossed the swords of diplomacy: Otto Bismak from Germany, both a cunning and dodging diplomat Tyutchev from Russia.
The Constitution of the United Germany adopted in the spring of 1871 actually provided Otto von Bismarck – the proclaimed chancellor – unlimited power. The field of activity for the imperial chancellor was wide. The German Empire was integral only on paper. A ‘solid hand’ was needed to re -ify the established orders.
The following main lines of the internal policy of Otto von Bismarck were outlined (I will list the most interesting, in my opinion, for a brief school notes. The full response with a detailed description of the internal and foreign policy of the chancellor is presented on this page from the user Sagavaha):
1) creation of state property. Mail, telegraph, railways were nationalized
2) the introduction of a gold brand as a monetary unit
3) increasing the authority of the state in the general masses of the population by introducing pensions, social insurance
4) restriction of the Catholic Church in its previous rights, the abolition of its autonomy.
At the time of Bismarck came to politics, Germany did not exist on the map of Europe. It was fragmented into dozens of small territories, but Prussia occupied the most prominent position. Austria – on the contrary, wanted to provide control of all German territories.
So, the main goals that were determined by Bismarck became:
- unification of Germany (for starting – its northern territories) on the basis of the largest territory – Prussia
- weaken the main competitor in the struggle for influence on German lands, both in the economic and political spheres
- raise the role of the Prussian king inside his own state and in the world arena
- Weaken the position of Vienna as a All -Metsk Center in Europe, conveying the brothers of influence to Berlin
- remove liberals from leading positions in the Reichstag
Bismarck was a notorious patriot of Germany and to achieve the tasks – he unleashed three victorious for Prussia of the war with Denmark, France and Austria, having achieved his own in 1871.
After he became the chancellor of the united Germany, the goals changed somewhat
Briefly – let’s call them like this:
Domestic policy Otto von Bismarck
Despite the fact that the German emperor was the king of Prussia Wilhelm (1871-1888 pp.), In fact, the country for 20 years (1871-1890 pp.) Led the Chancellor Bismarck.
The tasks of the internal policy of the Bismarck Government
• consolidation of bourgeois-junker power in the country.
• Strengthening the position of the state.
• suppression of the revolutionary movement in Germany.
Appointed by the Reichskantsler, Otto von Bismarck had great power and committed a number of reforms.
1. Reforms aimed at strengthening central authorities in the empire.
To reduce the influence of the Catholic Church on the political life of the country, and. von Bismarck achieved the adoption of the law, according to which:
• Priests are prohibited from any political activity
• The clergy lost the right to supervise schools
• Civil marriage was introduced
• The state registration of birth and death was introduced
• The activities of the Jesuit Order were prohibited
• The state controlled all appointments to church posts.
Politics directed against the influence of the Catholic Church was called ‘Cultural Committee’ – the struggle for culture.
The struggle against the socialists began. An exceptional law against the socialists was adopted (1878 p.). During its action
• 1300 work press publications are prohibited
• Closed 300 working organizations
• Surposed by the trials of the figures of the Social Democratic Party.
2. Military Reform:
• contributed to the technical equipment of the German army
• The number of troops was increased
• large entrepreneurs were provided with important state orders for the production of weapons based on the latest achievements of equipment, for the construction of important state facilities, railways, fortifications, ports.
3. Economic reforms allowed:
• Introduce a single currency
• Introduce significant protectionist duties on goods that were imported into Germany
• Create an imperial bank
• Nationalize the railways of Prussia
• Introduce a state monopoly on tobacco and alcohol products.
- In the social sphere, laws were adopted:
• On insurance from industrial accidents
• On disease insurance and disability
• About the 11-hour working day
• On the ban on children’s labor up to 13 years
• On the appointment of old -age pension (from 70 years).
Foreign policy Otto von Bismarck
1. Strengthening the position of the German Empire in Europe and establishing its hegemony
The diplomatic steps of Otto von Bismarck were aimed at preventing the rapprochement of France and Russia, the reconciliation of Great Britain and Russia, because this could prevent plans for Germany’s dominance in Europe.
To implement these plans, Germany needed allies. They became Austria-Hungary and Italy, which was the rival of France in the Mediterranean Sea and in northern Africa.
At first, Germany went to create the Union of three emperors – Germany, Austria -Hungary and Russia in 1873 p., To neutralize the influence of France on the continent.
In 1887, the Russian-German and Russian-Austrian contradictions were aggravated with the Middle East crisis 1875-1878 PP., Especially after the Berlin Congress, on which the frankly hostile positions of Germany and Austria-Hungary in Russia showed. Russia is changing attitude towards its allies.
In 1879, Germany and Austria-Hungary signed an allied agreement sent against Russia and France, and then Italy joined them. So, in 1882 a triple union was created (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy).
The consequence of the formation of this union became:
• Strengthening tension in Europe,
• activation of the propaganda of war for world domination
• arms race
• swelling of chauvinistic propaganda
• Preparation for new wars.
2. Struggle for new colonies
The struggle for the new redistribution of the world has begun.
To ensure the development of industry, Germany intended to seize new sources of raw materials and sales markets.
The main directions of the German colonial policy
Germany tried to get ahead of other countries in the redistribution of China.
She established control over the Shandunsky peninsula in China.
In 1885, Germany established control of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean.
In 1884, the first colony was founded in South West Africa, and the advance of German colonialists on the African continent continued for several decades.
The German colonies became that, Cameroon and other possessions of Africa.
The struggle for influence in Africa led to the clashes of Germany with France and Great Britain.
Having proclaimed the slogan “Natizh to the East”, Germany received a concession on the construction of the Baghdad railway to colonize the valleys of the Euphrates and Tiger, the Gulf of the Persian Gulf to go to India and penetration into China.