You can’t measure the beauty of nature-someone is breathtaking at the sight of a blooming Sakura, the other is delighted with Zebras and Lviv, and the third rests with the soul, admiring the dunes in the desert. Another thing is when you can measure any indicators. We will do this
Bison is the main symbol of Yellouston
The official date of the creation of this world’s first national park – March 1, 1872. Today Yellowstone is the same symbol of America as a statue of freedom or a gold gate bridge. And not without reason: on an area of almost 9000 km2 (this is more than the entire Republic of North Ossetia and more than three times more than Moscow) live hundreds of species of mammals, birds, reptiles and fish and about two thousand species of plants, including rare.
And there are geysers, lakes, forests and steppe, and under the park – a huge sleeping volcano. And all this goes well with hundreds of kilometers of high -quality roads, tourist objects and the status of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. More than three million tourists come here annually.
2. The newest: Sierra del shy
Tropical forests hidden by clouds on the slopes of the mountains in the Sierra del Park could well become the scene of the next part of the Jurassic Park
Thirteen and a half thousand square kilometers of the Amazon rain forests in Peru near the border in Brazil were declared a national park only at the end of 2015. The Sierra del S. a surprise borders (almost) of the same name by the Brazilian national park and includes not only the flat parts, but also the foothills of. In addition to hundreds of animal species (if not thousands – how much, no one knows: scientists annually open new species in the Amazon forests), local Indians also live here, whose habitat and lifestyle are also designed to protect. For a huge variety of wildlife, the size and importance of the Sierra del Recess in the press is called Yellowstone Amazon.
3. The largest: North-east Greenland
Icebergs are the most famous and numerous “inhabitants” of waters washing this national park
This territory, which occupies about a third of Greenland, is the only national park on the island, as well as the largest and largest north in the world. Its area is 972 thousand. km2, more than all of Tanzania (31st in area of the state on the planet) or, say, the Khabarovsk Territory, and a little less than Egypt. Of the people here, only scientists from research stations and military (both come temporarily – watch) with a total of tens of tens to hundreds (in the summer).
But here lives 40% of the global population of sheepskin, marine Arctic mammals, whales, birds (they fly here to remove offspring). Since the late 1970s, it is forbidden to conduct new geological developments in the territory, and all traces of the former are destroyed, it is also not allowed to hunt, so in the national park you can see the Arctic practically pristine. However, in recent decades, glaciers are melting here, so in a hurry.
4. The smallest: Muain Island
According to legend, on the island hid the loot pirates. Officially searches for treasures did not give the result
This green island with an area of only 10 hectares for a long time was a neo-ore, until the Englishman Brandon Grimmshu, who bought the island in 1962 for 8,000 pounds, was settled in it in the mid-1970s.
With his friends and relatives, he turned Muaine into the park, brought giant turtles there, paved paths for tourists, opened a restaurant and equipped a small beach. Then the island was part of the Seychelle Marine National Park Saint-Ann, and after the death of Grimsho in 2012 it became an independent national park, as its late owner wanted, and nothing that is the smallest in the world.
5. The most popular: GREAT-MOMOKI-MUNTINS
They say that sunsets and sunrises are the main entertainment events in this park. It is not surprising, judging by this picture
We admit, we were inpricitated: this is the most popular national park in the United States-other countries for some reason are in no hurry to publish such data. According to the Service of National Parks of the United States, this territory with an area of more than 2 thousand. KM2 in the Appalachian mountains, divided approximately in half the border between the States of Tennessee and North Carolina, in 2016 visited more than 11.3 million tourists (and about the same number of non -tourists).
This is understandable: the park is relatively close to densely populated areas of the eastern coast, associated with the history of American pioneers-pioneers, offers excellent fishing and wonderful views of mountain slopes overgrown with forests. The famous Appalach path passes through it, and in the Keids-Kov valley, old buildings erected by European immigrants were preserved at the beginning of the 19th century.
The most water: Sea Rossa (Pacific Sector of the South Ocean)
Penguins Adeli, the inhabitants of the Sea of Ross, French researcher Jules Dumon-Durville named after his wife. Interesting, due to external similarities or for some other reason?
Although marine parks and national parks on land are somewhat different things and this material is about the latter, but this one cannot but mention this.
Firstly, because it is huge and includes more than 1.5 million km2. Secondly, because it is not in the national territory, but in neutral Antarctica-this is part of the South Ocean washing the western part of the continent. The sea of Ross, despite the rather unfriendly climate, is distinguished by an amazing variety of inhabitants. And it was they who agreed to defend the European Union and another 24 states, signing in October 2016 the corresponding contract.
For example, it was here that they caught a giant squid ten meters long in 2007 and weighing half a ton. Now you won’t go so much here: 1.1 million square kilometers of the sea for the next 35 years are declared a zone forbidden for commercial fishing. In the rest of the park, you can hunt marine inhabitants only for scientific purposes.
6. The most lively: Korkovado
Although the territory of the park is adapted for visitors, not all routes in it are available for unprepared tourists-this is still a tropical forest
For the honorary title of “Living”, several national parks could compete-for example, Tanzani Serengei, through which millions of antelopes and zebras migrate twice a year and in which, according to legend, there is a cradle of humanity. However, we agree with colleagues from the National Geographic publication, who have characterized as “possibly the most biologically active place on the planet from the point of view of biodiversity” Kostarikan Korkovado.
Indeed, this park with an area of only 424 km2 on the Osa Peninsula is one of the last untouched sections of the tropical forest on the Pacific coast of Central America, and the number of rare unique species that come to the bays that come to the bay washing the peninsula.Calculation: one of them would take as much space as all this material.
At the same time, most of the local residents are not afraid of a person, but you can get acquainted with them day and night: special tours go to the forest even after sunset.
7. The most distant: Rapanui
Easter Island, Chile
On the plain part of the island, large trees are almost completely exterminated. A small number of them grows on the slopes of local volcanoes
If we take the most remote island inhabited by people on the planet and arrange a national park on it, you will get the most distant national park. This is exactly what happened to the Rapanui Park on the island of Easter, from which to Chile and the South American continent three and a half thousand kilometers (closer, two thousand kilometers, only Pitkern island with four dozen people).
This park is the UNESCO World Heritage Site, which occupies almost the entire territory of the island and, unlike other materials mentioned in this material, is mainly not nature, but just a cultural heritage: statues, rock paintings and other monuments created by the ancient inhabitants of the island. The inhabitants mainly destroyed the original flora and fauna (having cut down a thick tropical forest under zero), although not entirely-150 species of plants (including fifty endemic ones) still grow on the island) and dozens of bird species are nested, and sea are found on the beachesTurtles.
But the ocean around is a completely different matter: created in September 2017 around the island, the naval reserve of the same name (with an area of approximately the continental part of Chile) is designed to protect the unique diversity of local marine life.
8. The highest: Jomolungma
Dizziness is guaranteed. From species or lack of air – depends on your physical training
Although the highest peak of the earth-Everest, aka Jomolungma-is located within the borders of Nepal, its northeastern slope descends to China. It is declared by the National Park (from the Nepal side there is its own national park-Sagarmatha). For 87 thousand. KM2 of the Tibetan plateau were several peaks-elaborators and dozens of smaller mountains, as well as untouched mountainous nature.
There are many sky, peaks covered with eternal glaciers, mountain rivers and species, from which it is breathtaking. But there is little air – even at the lower points, the height above sea level is about five kilometers. Accordingly, there are few tourists, and those that are, are specially prepared for the conditions of the highlands. But it’s worth it.
9. The hottest: Death Valley
When in the Death Valley, the hottest place of the planet, there are strong rains (about once every ten years), then a riot of life is happened here, it is called superpretion. The rest of the time the valley fully justifies its name
The Ranch of FerNEN-CRIC is the holder of the global temperature record, more precisely, even two: in 1913 the highest air temperature on the planet, +56.7 ° C, and in 1972, the Earth’s surface on the ranch up to +93.9 was recorded here.° C.
It is located in the dry and hot part of the National Park of the Death Valley, and this part of the valley is at the same time one of the most dry places on the planet: about 1.5 mm of precipitation falls on average (for comparison: in Moscow this indicator is 600–800 mm). True, sometimes anomalies occur. Extremely strong rains cause destruction and mud streams and lead to the closure of the park-this was the case in October 2015. And in 2005, due to the abnormally humid winter, the lake was even formed in the park and the most plentiful flowering in the history of the park was the flowering of wild plants-the desert was briefly covered with a carpet of flowers.
10. The coldest: denali
Bears in the Denali National Park – full -fledged road users. It happens that they are raving and admiring McCinley Mountain
In the center of this huge park located in Alaska is the highest mountain of North America (and number three in the world)-Denali, previously known as McKinli: in 2015 it was returned to the original Indian name. In 2003, the weather station on its slopes recorded a record low temperature –59.7 ° C, and gusts of wind cooled the thermometer up to-83.4 ° C. This, of course, is not a world record – at the Antarctic station Vostok in 1983, a temperature was recorded – 89.2 ° C, but there is no national park. And in Alaska there is.
Even in July, the hottest month in this region, the temperature on the mountain may drop below -30 ° C. However, this did not stop more than half a million tourists to come here in 2016. The guests did not climb to the top to cool (most of them, at least), but admired the harsh beauty of the tundra, forests, lakes, mountains and glaciers, traveling on cars and stopping at numerous local campsites.
Photo: Jurgar / Getty Images, Westend61 / Getty images, Fotosearch / Getty images, Purestock / Getty Images, Larry Knupp / Eyeem / Getty Images, Bestimage / Legion-Media.ru, Imago / EPD / Legion-Media.RU, Prisma Bildagentur / Contributor / Getty Images, Ratnakorn Piyasirisorost / Getty Images, Trina Dopp Photography / Getty Images, Jacob W W. Frank / Getty images
The material was first published in February 2018, partially updated in February 2022