Nowadays, scientific and technological progress gave rise to digital art, and at the end of the 19th century helped the development of a new current in painting-impressionism
Claude Monet, who was sitting at the easel on the platform of the Saint-Lazar station (for which he, by the way, had a special permission from the head of the railway), looked extraordinary in all respects in all respects. In those days, classic artists infrequently looked into such places. In the 1870s, masters from the Paris Academy of Fine Arts considered the realities of the modern world, such as trains and stations, an unworthy plot.
But it was important for impressionists not to observe the canons, but to convey impressions of the real world, the game of light at certain hours. That is why they began to attach particular importance to painting in the open air: they wrote urban and rural landscapes in natural light, instead of, as it was customary, to sketch a sketch, and then in the workshop to carefully build an artificial composition and slowly, layer by layer, lay the paint. To “stop the moment”, quickly creating finished works from nature, impressionists developed a completely new letter of writing.
It was allowed to embody it by the achievements of industry. Paints appeared in comfortable tubes. They were thicker and demanded more rigid brushes that gave the smear texture. The impressionists turned traces of the hand on the canvas, which their predecessors smoothed into additional means of expression. The development of railway transport, which began in France in the late 1820s, also helped. On trains leaving the Paris station Saint-Lazar, impressionists could relatively quickly and inexpensively get to beautiful views and popular entertainment institutions on the banks of the Seine west of Paris. One of the favorite places of the artists was Arzhantai – a picturesque village on the shore of the Seine.
➀ Station Saint-Lazar. The most lively station of Paris of that time. It was opened in 1837, a glass roof in the spirit of fashion trends of the era acquired in 1851–1853. Monet shows the station as a place of eternal movement. Not far from Saint-Lazar in 1877, Monet rented a workshop, and in Arzhantye rented a house. The artist created a series of types of Saint-Lazar and his trains from 12 paintings. This was in the spirit of impressionism: to show on several canvases how different the same place can be at different times and with different lights.
➁ train. Unlike generally intended figures of people, the locomotive is carefully spelled out. A powerful car and the steam that is erupted – these are the main “heroes” of the picture.
➂ steam. When Monet presented at the exhibition in 1877 the seven types of Saint-Lazar station, critic Amede Dekub mockingly noted: “Unfortunately, dense smoke leaving the canvases prevented us from making out six paintings of this series”. But as, for example, London would not be beautiful for Monet, in his own words, without fog, and the train station with trains would not be so interesting without the movement of air and the game of light in clubs of steam that breaks out of the pipes.
➃ Light. To convey the game of light and the movement of the air was the main goal of Monet: “For me, the landscape does not exist on its own, because its appearance every moment changes, but the surrounding atmosphere revives it – air and light, which all the time are different. For me, only the atmosphere gives objects their true value “.
➄ color. Moneta abandoned the traditional brown underplay and used not mixed paints, but pure colors. He received various shades, tightly laying a side of smears of certain colors that “mixed” at a distance – so they were perceived by the human eye. This technique was prompted by the impressionists by research in the field of optics of Michel Eugene Sheverev.
➅ composition. Frenchman Louis Dager in 1839 introduced the world to daghorepia. Soon they learned to transfer the photographic image to paper. The impressionists became interested in photography who sought to fix the moment. In particular, they began to cut the image in the manner of pictures in order to create a feeling of a fragment pulled out of reality, as well as show the figures blurry to convey the movement.
1840 – Oscar Claude Monet was born in Paris in the Bachelor family.
1860–1864 – He studied painting in Paris at the Academy of Suiss, then at the workshop of Charles Glair (with a break to serve in the army in Algeria).
1870–1879 – Was married to Camilla Donsieu. He had two sons.
1874 – His landscape “Impression. Sunrise of the Sun ”caused a flurry of criticism, but gave the name to a new direction in art – impressionism (from the French impression -“ impression ”).
1883 – I rented a house in the village of Zhiverni (later bought it), where I equipped the famous garden. He was considered his main masterpiece.
1893–1911 – He was married to Alice Oshed, the widow of his friend.
1897–1926 – wrote his most popular series of paintings “Nymphs”. It has about 250 paintings.
1926 – died in Zhiverni from lung cancer. Buried in the local cemetery.
Photo: Getty images